early childhood educators preparation


Having a higher diploma or a degree in early childhood education is among the gravest features in the effectiveness of teachers; however, a diploma or a degree alone is not a guarantee that a teacher is competent enough to educate children. The quality of the program in higher education- that is how well it prepares early childhood teachers, for instance, giving them knowledge in academic subject areas and in child development and providing teachers with opportunities to practice new skills in schooling- is among the main, vital factor in the capacity of a tutor to manipulate the development and learning of kids in an approach that is optimistic that having a degree or a diploma per se. this paper, therefore, aims to improve and contribute to the understanding many have of the relationship that exists between learning and development of children and the quality of programs for early childhood education in institutions for higher education, and especially in the US (Stayton, Miller & Dinnebeil, 2003). The paper will achieve this, not by assessing this association, but by looking at the contexts for quality improvement of early childhood education programs as seen through the eyes of faculty leaders and members. The paper, therefore, will put much of its focus on quality issues, and especially the preparation of teachers as early childhood educators, and why there ought to be a concern over the quality of higher education programs that do not emphasize on quality and preparation.

Introduction to early childhood education

The quality of the workforce in early childhood education is a crucial element and may be of overriding significance in deciding whether early childhood education and intervention id of poor or of high quality. Along with an early learning environment that is well- equipped and safe, it is the behaviors and characteristics if the practitioners themselves that are more likely to add to the superiority of learning and how effective it is for children. As it follows, professional development to help the workforce acquire or improve knowledge and skills and intervention practices should show this essential relationship between the quality of the workforce in early childhood and the quality of the program (Maxwell & Clifford, 2006).

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A number of aspects of program quality can be categorized under two broad groups. The first category is the one concerned with the quality of the intentional teaching and of the curriculum. Examples of factors placed under this category include such things as evaluating and delivering instruction, planning, relating positively with both adults and children, and most importantly, preparation. The second category is the one concerned with the structural and environmental quality indicators like child- staff ration, physical environment, qualifications of the staff and collaboration and communication with families, in addition, to compensation and administrative leadership. Both of these dimensions seem to be crucial in defining early childhood programs quality and in predicting whether the early childhood experiences in the end enhance higher rates of development and learning in children (Maxwell & Clifford, 2006).

The matter of the preparation of efficient and effective teachers is crucial for educators of programs of early childhood. Several canvassers have proposed that the best program quality is determined by teachers who are educated better. The principle behind this article is to scrutinize the essentiality of a high level of education for all teachers of early childhood programs (Wagner, et al. 2005). The matter has interested numerous researchers in early childhood and has resulted to a large amount of studies over the past few years. A number of these studies will be essential in the paper in pointing out the importance of teacher preparedness as a factor or element in quality of early childhood education programs.

No Child Left Behind and its sister Good Start, Grow Smart are some of the most recent crucial legislation in education today, which emphasize on the quality of education, and focus on the national attention of the essentiality of teachers who are highly qualified in educational success of children. One of the various issues that crop up from these two legislatures is related to what is intended by the phrase a highly qualified educator. A number of studies and reports have explored the same and come up with a number of definitions and explanations that pertain to the phrase, the national research council in 2001 produced a report that recommended that all children have an educator who possesses a bachelor degree in early childcare and education (National Research Council, 2001). Prekindergarten policies established and implemented by the state also point out that a highly qualified educator is an individual who possesses a bachelor’s degree. A survey carried out between the periods of 2004 and 2002 suggested that 52 percent of states with prekindergarten programs needed educators to possess a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education (Barnett, et al., 2004).

The issue of demand versus need for educators who are highly qualified is also another essential factor when considering the quality of early childhood programs provided in a number of schools. A study aimed to study this issue in the example of a voluntary, universal prekindergarten for four-year-old children. The study assumed that a voluntary, universal prekindergarten program was offered to all four year old children in the US and that all the teachers were needed to possess an early childhood education bachelor’s degree. The researchers also estimated that about 150, 000 additional educators would be required to meet the need; estimates derived from this survey suggest that almost 16, 000 individuals in the US received an early childhood education bachelor’s degree in 2003 alone. If the same number of educators enter the education workforce annually, then it was estimated that it would take about nine years to meet the current need for 150, 000 additional educators for four year old students, many more would be needed for educating younger children (Maxwell & Clifford, 2006).

Preparedness of teachers for diversity is another issue that affects the superiority of programs in early childhood education. The population demographics of the children studying in the United States are constantly changing. More than 45 percent of the students in the US aged below five are not White according to the 2004 Census. More than 25 percent of children under five years old live with parents or a parent who speaks another language different from English at home. The findings from such studies indicate that graduates of early childhood educator preparation programs may not be ready or may not have had the practicum experience needed to be well prepared for such demographics. Less than fifteen percent of the early childhood programs offering an associate’s or bachelor’s degree, for instance, needed a whole course or more to become ready to work with those children who spoke more than one language (Stayton, Miller & Dinnebeil, 2003).

The diversity of the students and the faculty is also another component of preparedness for diversity according to the same researchers, data from their studies point out that most members of faculty of early childhood educator preparedness programs were non- Hispanic whites, yet most directors and chairs were aware of the need to diversify their faculties as per their students. Directors and chairs, for instance, rated difficult retaining and attracting ethnically diverse faculty members as of their largest challenges. The students in preparation programs for teachers, in early childhood, were largely more diverse when compared to the faculty. For instance, more than eighty percent of the faculty in institutions based on four years programs was whites of non- Hispanic background as compared to the 69 percent of the bachelor programs students. These findings show that programs require to further supporting and recruiting both faculty and students from diverse backgrounds. Efforts to recruit and support the continued education of learners derived from diverse backgrounds will not only help support a cadre of future leaders and faculty but also help to diversify the population of teachers (Stayton, Miller & Dinnebeil, 2003).

Another aspect of preparedness of early childhood teachers has to do with depth versus breadth. Around seventy percent of programs designed for early childhood teacher’s preparedness programs are meant to prepare teachers to work with children across a wide age span- from the toddler stages to early elementary school years. Although this breadth of age provides for future employment flexibility, it is at times impossible to attain the depth required to become highly qualified to educate children at each covered age. For instance, forty nine percent of the bachelor’s programs covering toddlers in their degree needed at least one unit or course in care and education of infants. These findings suggest two areas of concern for future research. Firstly, the current age spans covered in degrees is quite wide, but how narrow should it become to make sure that teachers become better qualified and prepared while still having a considerable amount of flexibility in the education job market? Not more than twenty percent of the bachelor’s degree programs in early childhood education covered the age range between 8 and 3. With the widening role of public schools in educating 4-year-old children, does this range of age show a balance between depth and breadth? Secondly, do toddlers and infants have teachers who are highly qualified (Barnett, et al., 2004)? The National Research Council in its report indicated that it is a requirement that each preschooler has unlimited access to a teacher with at least an early childhood education bachelor’s degree (National Research Council, 2001).

Preparedness in non- teaching roles is also another essential contributor to quality of early childhood education programs. Most individuals with a master’s and a bachelor’s degree will at one time or the other become program supervisors, administrators and providers of technical assistance, although these individuals may not be educating young children directly they may act as mediators of knowledge who prepare and support personnel for teaching. Leadership and non- teaching roles need certain skills that may not be covered or taught adequately in education systems. Almost 25 percent of master’s and degree’s programs did not need any coursework relating to administration, and about 40 percent of these programs did not need any coursework in adult development and learning (Winton & McCollum, 2009). These indicate that most early childhood teacher- preparedness courses are not adequate to addressing issues related to quality of education in early childhood programs.

Class management skills of teachers are also other critical indicator of quality of early childhood education. Improving the ability and capability of educators to effectively manage classrooms needs a systematic approach to the preparation of teachers and ongoing development of professionals, there is incomplete proof that indicates the theory that new teachers will simply pick up skills of managing classrooms given the time and experience. Although a number of studies show that teachers who are experienced have less concerns when it comes to managing classrooms, such studies may be less a sign that educators learn over time ways of managing classrooms effectively and efficiently, and more, a result of, the fact that numerous educators who did not study skills for managing classrooms simply have left professional development in management of a classroom are crucial elements of the solution (Wagner, et al. 2005).

Continued professional development in management of classrooms is critical for all teachers, but more so essential for those teachers who are new and inexperienced, managing the classroom effectively is usually more challenging for teachers who are inexperienced and new., who may not have had enough training, and who might have been assigned to classrooms with a huge percentage of students considered being at- risk. Overwhelmed by the usually unexpected and disruptive behaviors and needs of their students, such new and inexperienced teachers, are usually more likely to respond and more reactive to the inappropriate behaviors of their students by removing the disruptive student from instruction (Wagner, et al. 2005).

Therefore, students who are considered to be at- risk for behavioral and poor academic outcomes receive less instruction, and in most cases fall more behind that required; consequently, their minor problems in behavior increase and they are more likely to be inappropriately transferred to special services in education. More so, those students with disabilities are considerably more likely to suffer from suspensions as compared to those students without disabilities; in addition, learners suffering from behavioral and emotional disorders are suspended not less than 4 instances the time of the other students suffering from other kinds of disabilities. To address such issues, school leaders have to make sure that they provide their educators with ongoing development in their profession, in the area of behavior management and classroom management and organization (Wagner, et al. 2005).

In programs for teacher preparedness, more emphasis has to be placed on preparing both special and general educators to be more efficient and competent at managing and organizing today’s classrooms especially because of their broad range of diversity of students. This approach indicates that teacher preparedness programs should not only give teachers pre- service education on the intellectual conceptualization of the issues concerned but should also make sure that they have enough opportunity for guided feedback and practice in implementing both corrective and preventive strategies for behavior management (Wagner, et al. 2005).

With the above conclusions, it is no surprise that numerous studies indicate a positive relationship between the preparedness of teacher in their subject matters and their impact and performance in the classroom. Methods courses that are subject- specific in education are also indispensable. However, contrary to the common belief that study in more subject matter is usually better, there is a significant indication from studies that teachers have the ability to acquire knowledge in a subject matter from numerous sources including study in academic majors and academic course work that is subject specific. However, there is limited evidence on the amount or kinds of subject matter preparation; more research needs to be carried out before further conclusions are made. Some studies have found significant issues with knowledge in typical, subject matter of pre- service educators, even those teachers who have finished majors in academic disciplines. For instance, knowledge rules and procedures of pre- service teachers in mathematics are usually sound, while their knowledge of their skills of reasoning and concepts are weak. Lacking such deep conceptualization id essential aspects of the subject matter can prevent good teaching practices, especially with the high standards required in current educational reforms. Studies suggest that changes in the subject matter preparation of teachers may be required and that the answer is usually more difficult than simply needing more or a major in subject matter courses (Barnett, et al., 2004).

Pedagogical preparedness also has a significant place in the quality of education pre- service teachers are able to provide. By pedagogical preparedness, the paper means the various subject matters or lessons that instructors take in areas like methods of instruction, theories of learning, management of classroom and foundation of education. The arrangement and content of these courses in programs of teacher education are different. Research that has looked across a number of pedagogical parts of preparation of teachers reinforces the ideology that the pedagogical aspects of preparation of teachers matter both for their ultimate effects on student achievement and for their impacts on practices of teaching. Some findings indicate that content methods’ coursework matter for effectiveness of teachers. However, since many researches make use of a weak substitute for pedagogical preparation (possession of credentials for teaching) the result gives less insight as to which aspects of pedagogical preparation are more crucial (Barnett, et al., 2004).

Both newly certified and experienced teachers view clinical training (student learning) as the most powerful element in preparing teachers. Studies document essential shifts in attitude among educator candidates who work under the supervision in real classes with real children. Whether the said power increases the quality of preparedness of a teacher, it seems to depend on a certain characteristic and intent of the field of experience. Field experiences are at times intended to indicate what the teaching job feels like, at times to aid teachers learn more about management of the classroom, and at times to give practical chances to apply and use the learned and encountered concepts in the coursework of the university. Some are offered and taught early in the program, and others are offered late. Supervision arrangements, duration and settings, differ significantly. Studies indicate that field experience most commonly are disconnected from or are not connected well with the components of teacher education offered at the university. At times, the field experiences are limited to teaching aspects that are mechanical (Barnett, et al., 2004).

Finding placements is usually difficult, and pin pointing schools that share perspectives of education with programs for teacher education are critical to shaping that experience. Yet studies point out that some promising educational practices of subject matter can be changed through their analysis and observation of what happens in real classrooms. Stereotypical ideologies can change when student educators work in classes that make it possible for this to happen. In field experiences with activities that ate well- structured and focused, more considerable learning can exist. Cooperating educators have a powerful impact on the kind of the learner teaching experience (Wagner, et al. 2005).

Given the well- acknowledged the need for educational workforce that is more highly skilled and increased global competitiveness in the current global economy, the essentiality of top-notch educators for early childhood schools is quite clear. What seemingly is not quite obvious is that the superior educators needed of the multi- cultural, complex, fast- paced twenty first century do not simply enroll and enter a classroom as a slate that is blank and learn. They are extensively schooled on how learners learn subjects and schooled in their subject matters; they are tutored, nurtured, observed, practiced, corrected, critiqued and even at times persuaded from undertaking the challenge of teaching. Those individuals who will become the outstanding educators of the needs of the nation have to be well- prepared for the teaching profession (Wagner, et al. 2005).

A number of studies indicate that teachers who make a positive influence or difference in the learning abilities of their students have a number of specific and general characteristics. Some of these characteristics include; they have a strong verbal ability and general intelligence that aid then in explaining and organizing ideas, as well as, think and observe diagnostically. Excellent teachers also have a strong knowledge of the content material up to a point that relates to what they have to teach their students. They also have knowledge of how to teach or show others in their subject areas (pedagogy). They have an understanding of their students and their development including how to scaffold and assess learning, how to help the learner with difficulties and differences in learning and how to support the language of learning and learning content for those inexperienced scholars in the instruction language (Wagner, et al. 2005).

In addition to all these, an excellent teacher also is has an adaptive expertise that makes it possible for them to judge what methods of teachings are likely to work in a certain context or subject matter in response to the needs of their students. Numerous studies argue that teacher who possess the above characteristics are well – prepared and that their preparedness has a positive influence on their student’s achievement, on their own confidence based on preparedness for teaching and on their behavior for staying, that is, their retention in the teaching field. All these effects of teacher preparedness are essential characteristics or indicators of high quality education in early childhood. So the question of concern has to do with how schools and states can make their early childhood educators more efficient and effective by getting them to be more prepared for their roles as educators (Carnine, 1976).

As it follows, a number of studies have been launched to come up with conclusive recommendations for improving or enhancing preparation of teachers in management of classes. Changes to the preparation programs of teachers should put a lot emphasizes on two main recommendations. Firstly, such changes should provide teachers with instructional methods and approaches for management of classrooms through guided practice and coursework with feedback. Secondly, such changes should address the challenges facing educator candidate and new teachers in coming up with classroom context that is positive (Carnine, 1976).

When it comes to providing teachers with approaches for instruction through guided practice and coursework, teachers must put more emphasis on strategies for instruction to prevent behavior and academic difficulties, and, therefore, facilitating an increase in the achievement of the concerned learners, especially among minority and poor students who have a tendency to lag behind when compared to their more affluent peers. Teachers who are more effective have increased rates of positive responses of the students to their methods of instruction. Learners who are attending to tasks in academic cannot be at the same time be involved in behaviour that is off- task and disruptive. Instruction that is effective reduces disruptive behavior through increased rates of academic achievement and engagement (Carnine, 1976).

Effective instruction in encouraging and motivating increasing rates of academic engagement and behavior that is on- task is characterized by a number of features. These include instructional material that learners find relevant, and an order that is sequential and planned and one which is logically related to development of skills at the instructional level of the student.  Other features include immediate error correction and feedback, guided practice and frequent chances for a learner to respond to roles in academic (Carnine, 1976).

Providing instruction at the level that is appropriate of the student is critical. When learners are presented with materials and information beyond their current level of skills, they are likely to get frustrated and engage in behaviors that avoid engaging in the course material. As it follows, the teacher may do away with the demand for their attention or may do away with the disruptive learners from the classroom. Just the same way, if the level of instruction of the material is not complicated enough for the students; they may start participating in disruptive behaviors due to boredom and absence of challenge. Increases in task completion, on- task behavior and comprehension are positively related to providing learners with course materials that are according to their levels of difficulty of instruction. Learners who are engaged actively and provided with constant chances to respond to academic roles demonstrate improves academic achievement and skills and are less disruptive (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001).

Generally, effective management skills for a classroom require a comprehensive strategy that includes more or less of the following. Structuring the classroom and school environment, actively supervising the engagement of the students, implementing rules and routines governing the classroom, enacting procedures that motivate on- task behavior, making use if reduction strategies for behavior and collecting and making use of data to assess the behavior of students and to change the management procedures of the classroom as required. In addition to making sure that there is the proper and relevant content, preparation programs from teachers must indicate the proper field experience. One strategy that helps with this issue is the professional development school model that makes use of strong relations between teacher education curriculum and field experience. In this mode, pre- service educators finish course work on management of classrooms and engage in field experience with teachers who are experienced. They also acquire the pragmatic chance to practice management of classroom in a typical classroom environment with support and feedback. Instructional elements like writing of journals, portfolios and reflective activities usually provide for novice teachers to increase their classroom management skills based on their field experiences (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001).

The other recommendation has to do with addressing some of the challenges that face teachers in creating a classroom context that is positive. Structuring a classroom so that it offers support to student behaviors and characteristics that are positive needs planning and forethought. Teachers who are highly effective structure their classroom environment to decrease instances of student behavior that is inappropriate, increase student interactions that are positive and set up learners for higher achievement and success. To achieve this, a teacher has to prepare so as to achieve the following features. An effective and prepared teacher has to create a physical arrangement that eases the flow of traffic, reduces distractions, and provides educators with excellent access to students to respond to their needs and better control their class behavior. A teacher also has to make efficient and effective use of class time, including those transitions that occur between various activities in the classroom. They also have to ensure that the quality and nature of interactions of students is positive. Teachers also have to clearly draw the appropriate communicating behaviors for certain classroom activities (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001). These are some of the recommendations that early childhood teachers can make use of so as to make sure they are well prepared to deliver quality education to children.


High quality education has been an area of concern and debate especially with numerous definitions of what high quality education and highly qualified teachers mean. However, despite the numerous disagreements on what these terms represent, a number of central grounds have also been established, especially those that have to do with the components and features of highly qualified teachers. From the above reviews of researches, we have seen that for teachers to deliver education that is of high quality to the student they have to fulfill two main needs. Firstly, they have to be able to create a class environment that enhances learning. Secondly, they have to possess a number of critical class management skills that are indispensable in ensuring that children learn without disruptions.


Barnet, S. et al. (2005). The state of preschool: 2005 state preschool yearbook. NJ: NIEER.

Carnine, D. (1976). Effects of two teacher- presentation rates on off-task behavior, answering correctly, and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (2), 239- 53.

Maxwell, L. & Clifford, M. (2006). Professional development issues in universal prekindergarten. In E. Zigler, W. Gilliam and Jones (Eds.). A vision for preschool education. NY: Cambridge University Press.

NRC (2001). Eager to learn: educating our preschoolers. Committee on early childhood pedagogy. B. Bowman, M. Donovan and M. Burns (Eds.). Commission on behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington: National Academy Press.

Sutherland, S. & Wehby, H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD. Remedial and Special Education, 22 (2), 113- 21.

Stayton, V., Miller, P. & Dinnebeil, L. (2002). Personnel preparation in early childhood special education. New York: Wesley and Sons.

U.S. Census Bureau (2004). Hispanic Asian Americans increasing faster than the overall population. Retrieved from    http://www.census.gov/PressRelease/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html

Wagner, M. et al. (2005). The children and youth we serve: a national picture of the characteristics of students with emotional disturbances receiving special education.      Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 13 (2), 79- 95.

Winton, P. & McCollum, J. (2009). Preparing and supporting high quality early childhood practitioners: Issues, evidence and recommendations. In P. Winton, J. McCollum & C.    Catlett (Eds.). Effective professionals: evidence and applications in early childhood and      early intervention. Washington: Zero to Three Press.


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