entrepreneurship and leadership in women



1.1 Background Information. 3

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1.2 Rational of this Research. 4

1.3 Research Aims and Objectives. 5

1.4 Outline of this Research. 6


2.1 The Development Status of Women Entrepreneurs in China. 6

2.1.2 Entrepreneurship in China. 8

2.1.3 Women Entrepreneurs in China. 8

2.2 Social Gender Roles. 11

2.2.2 The Psychological Foundations of Social Gender Role. 11 Social Learning Theory. 13 Cognitive Developmental Theory. 14

2.2.3 The Development of Social Gender Role. 15

2.2.4 The Measurement of Social Gender Role. 16

2.2.5 The Empirical Study on Social Gender Role. 17

2.3 Leadership Effectiveness. 19

2.3.2 Theories about Effective Leadership. 20 Behaviour Theory. 21 Contingency Theory. 22


2.5 Conclusion. 24


Research Philosophy. 25

3.2 Research Approach. 26

3.3 Research Strategy. 27

3.4 Data Collection. 28

3.4.1 Questionnaire Design. 29

3.6 Sample and Sampling Method. 30

Research Ethics. 31

3.8 Conclusion. 32




1.1 Background Information

No society has ever been comfortable with the natural sex discrepancies between men and women. Evidence shows that apart from the natural sex differences, every society culturally portrays women as different and inferior compared to men (Blessings, 2010; OECD, 2004; Vogel, 2003). Specifically, Brindley (2008) posits that this obvious differentiation amounts to social gender role profiling. Arguably, it is not enough for a man to be male or for a woman to be a female they must be painted as masculine or feminine. Social gender role can therefore be referred to as a kind of cultural sex assigning where women are painted as feminine and men are portrayed as masculine.

Social gender role profiling expects men to learn and practice the assigned male gender roles while women are expected to learn and practice the assigned feminine roles. Vogel (2003) agrees that from an early age, boys are taught that masculinity is superior to femininity while girls are taught that femininity is about being submissive. The society expects men to be aggressive and show a sense of control in all matters they undertake while women are expected to be supportive to men but should not take leading roles in mainstream activities such as politics and entrepreneurship (Appelbaum, Audet and Miller, 2002). Any deviation from these held cultural sex assigning is usually met with outright societal condemnation and the responsible persons are referred to as rebels.

Interestingly, masculine and feminine gender roles strengthen each other in a mutual manner. Since gender role is a psychological profiling system, persons who embrace masculine and feminine roles indirectly perpetuate societal inequality – even some employment opportunities are referred to as girlish (Blessings, 2010). It is interesting that every woman wants to be perceived as feminine through dressing, behaviour and even through the employment opportunities they take (Vogel, 2003). On the other hand, every man wishes to be perceived as true man by way of dressing, behaviour and the nature of economic activities they undertake (Appelbaum et al, 2002). Though there are significant cases of people transgressing into another gender role as is the case with gays and lesbians, the mainstream society is generally considered “straight” (Vogel, 2003).

1.2 Rational of this Research

Entrepreneurship and leadership among women is an interesting topic that has attracted many research studies. Specifically, a lot of research has been carried out to study the relationship between women entrepreneurs, social gender roles and leadership effectiveness. Appelbaum et al (2002) and Vogel (2003), for instance, find that women are disadvantaged when it comes to accessing leadership opportunities. Blessing (2010) on the other hand finds that in most countries of the world, women are marginalised despite their large numbers – they are not proportionately represented in both the public and private sectors. However, Kent et al (2010) find that considerable improvements have been made in terms of incorporating women in the mainstream leadership and entrepreneurship opportunities.

On the other hand, Anderson et al (2006), Chemers et al, (2000), Kim and Shim (2003), Morgan (2004), and OECD (2004) finds that though women are at a disadvantage when it comes to accessing entrepreneurship opportunities. However, OECD (2004) clarify that women create entrepreneurship opportunities and are capable of ascending to management and leadership positions and can perform excellently just like men or even better than men. However, the study also finds that women have limited choices when it comes to venturing into business – they normally venture into less popular and less lucrative business that are considered feminine such as retail, education, and catering. Overall, these studies seem to take a general view of the situation women goes through in terms of getting entrepreneurship opportunities and demonstrating effective leadership qualities.

However, there is a shortage of empirical research on the impact of social gender roles have on leadership and entrepreneurship opportunities among women living in emerging economies such as China. Specifically, there is no empirical literature on the relationship between women entrepreneurship, gender roles and leadership effectiveness among women living in Beijing. Zhe (2007) does a tremendous work in chronicling the development of women entrepreneurships in China but still does not give much credit to social gender roles and leadership effectiveness.

Beijing is a world’s leading urban centre in terms of its contribution to the global economy and culture. The city is home to as many as 20 million people, a big chunk of which are women (Forbes, 2011). It is therefore important for a study to be carried out on how women in Beijing fair in terms or accessing entrepreneurship and as well applied leadership skills when running enterprises.

1.3 Research Aims and Objectives

Women entrepreneurs often play an important role in business development. They make efforts to access opportunities through making full use of the specific characteristics, and have reached some certain successes. However, McClelland et al (2005) there are still some obstacles that bar women from accessing entrepreneurial opportunities. While basing on the previous studies outlined above, this research aims at exploring the influence of women’s social gender role on leadership effectiveness as demonstrated in enterprises managed by women in Beijing, China. In addition, the study will also pursue the following objectives:

  1. To explore the social gender role of women entrepreneurs operating in Beijing, China.
  2. To explore the leadership effectiveness of women entrepreneurs in Beijing, China.
  3. To explore the relationship between women entrepreneurs’ social gender role and leadership effectiveness.
  4. To provide some suggestions on improving management effectiveness for Beijing women entrepreneurs.

1.4 Outline of this Research

The research is structured into five core chapters: Introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and discussion, and conclusion and recommendations. Other sections in this study include a list of appendices that support key arguments and pertinent captions gathered from the study participants. In addition, the study is accompanied by an executive summary as the first section, that captures the aims and objectives of the study as well as the findings and the recommendations made thereof. For purposes of clarity and as Creswell (2003) advices, each of the five chapters is structured into various sections and subsections. These sections and subsections are guided by the study aims and objectives as outlined above.


This chapter mainly covers a critical review, summary and analysis of the relevant literature. Literature covered in the chapter include female entrepreneurs, social gender role and leadership effectiveness. In addition, the chapter discusses the influence of Beijing women’s social role on leadership effectiveness of women entrepreneurs’ development. Overall, the chapter provides a deeper understanding of the social gender role and the related information so as to provide better suggestions for female entrepreneurs’ development.

2.1 The Development Status of Women Entrepreneurs in China

2.1.1 Entrepreneurship

To understand the concept of female entrepreneurs well, it is important to define the idea of entrepreneurship in an operational manner. The term entrepreneur was lifted from the French language and its original meaning is adventurers or brave persons who were respected for their ability to lead military expeditions (Erve, 2004). This idea was gradually extended to sociology, economy, operation and management, as well as other sectors during the early days of the 19th century (Reynolds, 2007). From an economic perspective, entrepreneurs are usually innovative persons with a business acumen and capable of leveraging resources in pursuit of new opportunities that may not seem commercially viable to other people (Shane, 2003).

While drawing from Wang and Zang (2005), entrepreneurship can broadly be divided into three main branches. These are entrepreneurship, entrepreneur function, and entrepreneurship human capital. Entrepreneurship is mainly represented by entrepreneur spirit of adventure (Marshall and Knight, 1930), and entrepreneur innovation spirit (Schumpeter, 1942). The entrepreneurship function is the major school of entrepreneurship which include entrepreneur management and value creation functions. Entrepreneurship human capital on the other hand mainly covers the differences between enterprises and posits that the strategic differences are responsible for differences between firms (Reynolds, 2007).

Different research views and researchers, different schools of researches have different views on the concepts of female entrepreneurs. According to Marshal and Knight (1930), Reynolds (2004) and Schumpeter (1942), it can be realised that entrepreneurship is the combination of enterprises’, production factors such as decision makers of production and management, guiders of company management and undertakers of risks. In addition, entrepreneurs’ innovation has a certain relation with risk venture (Shane, 2003). Supported by innovation and risk venture spirit, entrepreneurs can continuously develop new markets and provide new products.

Moreover, entrepreneurs induce meaning through innovation and venturing into risky endeavours. Praag (1999) argues that innovation and risk venture spirit makes the expansion of economic activities and acceleration of social developments very easy. However, for purposes of this study, Kang (2007) definition of entrepreneurs as persons who own and manage businesses in an innovative manner while leveraging scarce resources to create value will be employed.

2.1.2 Entrepreneurship in China

So to effectively understand the development status of women entrepreneurs in China Beijing, China, it is important to conduct a brief overview of the history and development of the entrepreneurship in China. Until 1978 entrepreneurship in China was thriving at a small scale level. The socialist regime acted as a barrier to large scale entrepreneurship – agriculture and related industries were collectivised while other major industries were nationalised and the private sector was not operational (Liao and Sohmen, 2001; Pomfret, 2000). The state determined where to distribute inputs and outputs and national corporations were required to provide housing and other amenities to the population (Wong, Rong, & Mu, 1995). However, things changed for the better after 1978 upon a new leadership revolution orchestrated by Deng. This started by the de-collectivisation of the agriculture sector as well as the inception of township and village enterprises that were owned by the local governments. Until 1978 all enterprises in China where owned by the central government (Oi, 1999; Pomfret, 2000). Arguably, 1978 could be associated to the birth of Chinese entrepreneurship.

Nevertheless, Chinese entrepreneurship did not change until 1987. This year is associated with major change into entrepreneurship-friendly laws that vouched for the resurrection of the private sector. Since then, China has experienced a huge growth in entrepreneurship. Such high of entrepreneurship has helped the country to grow from a developing nation struggling to uplift the lives of its large population to the world’s fastest growing economy for the last 30 consecutive years – over 10 percent growth rates (Knight and Ding, 2012; Liao and Sohmen, 2001). The country is also the world’s leading exporter, the world’s second largest importer, and the world’s second largest economy after the United States in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity (Huang, 2008; IMF, 2006). Arguably, this notable economic growth is attributable to the strong entrepreneurial culture that prevails in the country.

2.1.3 Women Entrepreneurs in China

While drawing from literature on entrepreneurship reviewed above (Shane, 2003; Kang, 2007; Reynolds, 2004), this study defines women entrepreneurship as the process of owning and managing a business in a way that facilitates constant innovation and utilisation of scarce resources to create value. Like in many other economies, women entrepreneurship in China has gone through a period of transformation – from low scale labour ventures to large scale capital intensive ventures (Zhe, 2007). Nevertheless, this shift is slow when compared to the case of men entrepreneurs who by virtue of their “superior” gender roles (masculinity) can venture into any industry of their choice as they have the financial resources and the necessary skills to do so (OECD, 2004).

Specifically, Billing and Alyesson (2000) find that even after efforts made by the United Nations through various gender equality awareness campaigns including the 1995 Beijing Conference on Gender Equality, lucrative entrepreneurship and top leadership opportunities are still awarded along social gender roles. Moreover, Chemers et al (2000) find that even the most successful women entrepreneurs start their businesses often as a second or third profession. On its part, OECD (2004) posits that most successful women entrepreneurs operate in sectors considered to be “naturally” advantageous for women.

Female entrepreneurs create and even undertake risky entrepreneurial activities such as mining and construction. Risky entrepreneurial activities motivate female entrepreneurs to continuously innovate and start new business so as to remain relevant in the men dominated business world (OECD, 2004). Moreover, female entrepreneurs are a special group of entrepreneurs that is tipped to controlling a large portion of the global business market in the next years (Blessings, 2010). Like their male counterparts, female entrepreneurs recombine the factors of production, the critical decision-makers, and the undertakers of risks. Influenced by innovation and risk venture spirit, female entrepreneurs continuously take innovation and creation activities, develop new markets and create new products.

Female entrepreneurs account for increasingly large proportion of the global business entities. Goffee and Scase (1985) studied 54 female entrepreneurs and found out that female entrepreneurs have their own independently entrepreneurial ideal but will willingly accept the traditional social gender role, namely, willingness of obeying males. Based on this condition, female entrepreneurs can be divided into four parts: traditional entrepreneurs which refers to people obeying entrepreneurial model and traditional social gender role; innovative entrepreneurs refers to people who believe entrepreneurial ideal and are not tied on the traditional social gender role; family-type entrepreneurs which refers to the professional career developed on the basis of family conditions and the confidence in traditional female status; and radical entrepreneurs who usually develop their businesses on the basis of politics and collectivism.

Female entrepreneurship has undergone major shift in the recent years. With the change of time and the progress made in major cultural institutions such as education, religion and family institutions, women have rose to almost equal levels to men in the business arena (OECD, 2004). Arguably, this has been made a reality by the numerous women liberation movements advocating for gender equality. Evidence shows that these liberation movements culminate into programmes that provide capital and new investment opportunities for women (Hughes and Jennings, 2012; Zhe, 2007). Moreover, the movements challenge women to reach out for bigger things through engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Consequently and as O’Briena, Major and Gilberta (2012) posit, involvement in business activities has resulted into unique “masculine” characteristics, such as self-esteem, confidence, independence and self-improvement.

In addition, O’Briena et al (2012) find that female entrepreneurs are more inclined to have a rich emotion and are good at communicating. The soft management style embodied in them is more likely to be the future developing trend of management group. Based on this observation, it is arguable that female entrepreneurship is critical in the business world as it lie in the lowest point and bears more challenges than male entrepreneurship (Wiehe et al., 2010).

The number of successful women enterprises has increased in China. Based on a research by Beverley and Atsese (2004), many Chinese women began to start the business in the late 1980s, and the speed of entering the business field rose in the mid 1990s. According to the investigation conducted by Thornton (2009), the proportion of Chinese females in senior management is 34 percent, while the global average is 20 percent. Moreover, the fields that females present their talents are not limited to human resource management or accounting.

Many women engage in the private investment sector too. The latest statistics show that in China female entrepreneurs are above 29,000,000, accounting for more than 20 percent of totally Chinese entrepreneurs (Lewis, 2012). However, because of family pressures, if females want to reach the same commercial success as males, they must redouble their efforts. Specifically, Blake-Beard et al (2010) consider that because of the increasing numbers of females occupying leadership opportunities in major businesses, there is need to help them develop their leadership and entrepreneurial skills.

2.2 Social Gender Roles

2.2.1 The Definition of Social Gender Roles

Social gender role is a kind adaptive to sex. According to Brindley (2005), social gender role is often required by individuals in the process of learning and imitating. The concept of social gender role holds that masculinity and femininity are located in the two extremes of gender role behaviour continuum. However, Stoilova (2010) thinks that social gender role refer to the regulatory expectations to sexual division existed in the specific historical and contextual situations. This argument is supported by Bem (1974) in his argument that the notion of androgyny puts masculinity and femininity in the opposite directions and persons normally adopt the best between the two as advised by societal forces.

2.2.2 The Psychological Foundations of Social Gender Role Theory of Mind

The theory of mind posits that rational human beings attribute and understand that they have different mental states from others. According to Korkmaz (2011), the theory of mind is more of a common sense framework than a theory and it can only qualify to be a theory to the extent that no human being is capable of accessing theirs or others’ minds. Human beings normally assume that others have their own unique mental capabilities without even seeing it by reasoning that normal functioning of other body components indicate that others have sound but varied mental states (Uekermann and Daum, 2008).

However, the theory of mind is not applicable to persons suffering from mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Persons need to be in a position to make mental attributes and to associate such attributes with meaningful behavioural explanations. As such, persons with mental disorders are not capable of expressing rational thoughts or deeds (Korkmaz, 2011). Evidence shows that the theory of mind is based on the principle of reciprocity of social interactions among individuals who by way of retrospection can attribute mental states and actions to others and correctly predict the rationale for such actions. Such rationale is then used to explain behaviour states, for instance, the rationale behind aggressiveness could be as a result of living in a society that values masculine behaviours traits among men (Courtin and Melot, 2005). The ability to correctly attribute mental states, understand behaviour traits, and offer explanations supporting such behaviour traits is itself an art that can only be made possible by the theory of mind (Uekermann and Daum, 2008).

Though theory of mind is thought to be an innate ability among rational human beings, evidence shows that its full manifestation is subject to a number of social and environmental experiences (Uekermann and Daum, 2008; Korkmaz, 2011). This is why people have different capacities of theories of mind. For instance, some facets such as empathy differ among individuals – while some individuals are more caring, understanding, and responsive towards other people’s predicaments than others. People with higher levels of empathy are thought to have higher levels of cognitive capabilities to register, respond to different behaviour complexes.

It is argued that persons who experience low theory of mind have difficulties in seeing the rationale behind other people’s behaviour and therefore cannot understand how their behaviours affect those of others (Korkmaz, 2011). Arguably, theory of mind influences social gender role as en cannot bring themselves to understand how their domineering character affects the efforts of women to ascend to entrepreneurship and leadership opportunities. Just the same way persons with mental impairment cannot reciprocate sound social behaviours, men too cannot treat women equally despite women being submissive and caring to them. Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory is a behaviour-based theory advanced by Albert Bandura to explain how behaviour traits are formed. The theory is based on the notion that individuals learn and adopt behaviour traits through observing persons considered to have a greater social standing (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). Bandura referred this situation to as reciprocal determinism, a complex where people’s behaviour is a function of their personalities, and the environment they live in (Hensley and Singer, 2004).

The theory holds that behaviour traits are learned through three main ways. These are observing live models such as parents or society figureheads, through verbal instruction, and through watching behaviour symbols from the media (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). Live models such as religious leaders have a great impact on the society as they are generally perceived to have good morals and habits and most people strive to demonstrate such behaviour traits.  On the other hand, persons can learn desired behaviour traits by listening to influential persons describe what such behaviour traits entail and their benefits. Lastly, persons learn new behaviour traits from watching documentaries or even reading relevant literature regarding a certain desired behaviour (Hensley and Singer, 2004).

The modelling process according to Bandura follows a series of four successive stages. Firstly, individuals must pay attention to the indented behaviour so as to learn its various features – aspiring leaders must pay attention to worthwhile leadership traits demonstrated by models such as church ministers. Secondly, persons must not pay attention to the desired behaviour but they must retain what they learn so as to reproduce such behaviour. The third stage involves reproducing the behaviour. Reproduction of the behaviour involves adjusting behaviour-responses to fit those of the model behaviour and practicing the new behaviour until change occurs. The last stage involves motivating oneself so as to show attention, learn, retain, and reproduce the learned behaviour (Hensley and Singer, 2004). The rationale behind the last stage of modelling as advanced by Bandura is that no matter the degree of attention, retention, and production, an individual will not change their behaviour if their no strong incentive behind the desired behaviour. Cognitive Developmental Theory

Jean Piaget advanced the cognitive theory of development to explain how human intelligence functions. The theory addresses intelligence related areas such as how knowledge is acquired, how it is constructed and how it is put into practice. It holds that cognitive development is a function of a host of genetic and social factors that together impact how an individual acquires knowledge though out their lives (Tuckman and Monetti, 2010). Piaget believed that cognitive development is a dynamic system that can be explained using two dynamic conditions of operative and figurative. Cognitive development, which Piaget equated to reality, comprises of both transformations and states conditions – transformations involve the changes that individuals undergo while states, on the other hand refer to the specific condition one is in from one transformation to another (Santrock, 2004).

Nevertheless, Piaget argued that since cognitive development is a function of genetic and social factors, operative intelligence represents the transformational aspect of reality while figurative intelligence represents the state aspects of reality (Tuckman and Monetti, 2010). Moreover, the operative intelligence covers all the active aspects of intelligence which in this case includes actions that are carried out as part of the broader response and anticipations to transformations. On the other hand, figurative intelligence covers all actions carried out in order to retain what has been learned – figurative intelligence is responsible for the maintenance of the acquired states between periods of transformation (Santrock, 2004). Basically, figurative and static aspects of intelligence are functions of operative and transformational intelligence as people cannot claim to be of certain intelligence level without undergoing a period of change. People perceive, imitate, draw images and learn new knowledge and skills upon undergoing period of active learning which Piaget referred to as operative transformations (Tuckman and Monetti, 2010).

Overall, the theory of cognitive development as posited by Piaget occurs in two core functions – assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is usually the process through which an individual perceive and adjust/adapt to a certain environment or information chunks. Nevertheless, Piaget clarified that assimilation is normally a function of the pre-existing cognitive capabilities, that is, individuals will always respond to new information based on their existing cognitive schemas (Trail, 2012). On the other hand, accommodation occurs when juxtaposing the new information with the existing cognitive schemas and forming a compromise between the two. However, both assimilation and accommodations must be in concert with each other – there must be equilibrium between the two especially among persons with higher levels of cognitive development (Tuckman and Monetti, 2010).

2.2.3 The Development of Social Gender Role

Social gender role can be described as dynamic. The birth of a baby marks the journey towards a socially gendered system that perceives women as feminine and males as masculine (Vogel, 2003). Human development takes place between the biological and social continuums of growth – people as either masculine men or feminine women. Social and behavioural theorists believe that the journal towards human development takes place in a series of about four stages. The first stage marks the birth which determines ones sex as either male or female. This is by far the most salient stage of human development (Blessings, 2010). The second stage involves the social gender role assignment where one is labelled as either man or woman or a boy or a girl. The third stage on the other involves the use of gender as a mediator of the experiences one goes through and how they interact with their immediate environment. The fourth stage involves the studying how sex and gender differences interact with each and the controversies they bring about (Bem, 1974).  Overall, the relationship between sex and gender as scrutinized from the social gender role develop purview can be described as controversial in nature – it is controversial because theorists are divided between how nature (biological composition of a human being) and the social environment nurture sex and gender roles assigned to individuals.

While sex refers to the physical makeup of an individual gender refers to the socially acquired traits of an individual. For example, one is considered a man because of their reproduction system, brain functionalities, and the genitals. On the other hand, gender identity is a function of the prevailing social factors (Vogel, 2003). However, the two forms of human identity are strongly intertwined as exemplified by the closely held prestige among men who perceive themselves more superior than women. Again, both sex and gender identities undergo various growth milestones from conception through adolescence and adult years (Brindley, 2008). Such millstones include prenatal development within the womb of the mother, infancy development between 0-2 years, early childhood between 2-6 years, middle childhood between 6-12 years and adolescence between 12-18 years (Appelbum et al, 2002). The adolescence marks a very critical part of social gender role assignment because it is here when ones gains confidence and drop off their childhood gender stereotypes and adopt other roles considered to be the preserve of adults (Brindley, 2008). Here, young children need to be with critical information to help them develop strong sex and gender opinions of themselves.

2.2.4 The Measurement of Social Gender Role

Social gender role cannot be quantified in numerical terms. However and as Philips (2005) posits, social gender roles can be measured using indicators such as relative power, marginalisation, autonomy, and poverty. These indicators are based on the notion that gender influences individuals the socio-economic and political experiences. As such, social gender roles can be measured based on their impacts on individual’s socio-economic and political experiences. Nevertheless, there can never be a gold standard for measuring social gender roles as gender cannot be packaged into definite numerical values (OECD, 2004). However, the impact of social gender roles can be measured by way of comparative analysis between men and women (Philips, 2005). Using the case of women for example, a socially disadvantaged gender in many societies, social gender roles can be measured by analysing the opportunities occupied by women compared to those occupied by men in a given field, say the political or even economic landscape.

This approach can be achieved by narrowing down on a given population cohort, say people aged between 18 years and 35 years in more than one country. From here, the cohorts socio-economic and political experiences can be recorded, say, the number of women occupying top management positions compared to men (Vogel, 2003). Such results can then be analysed using a quantitative tool such as regression analysis and results reported (Philips, 2005).

Nevertheless, such study may face challenges. These include determining whether social gender roles alone cause disparities between the number of men and women occupying positions of influence in the socio-economic and political landscapes. This is because the distribution of opportunities between men and women is a function of many factors. Moreover, social gender role is dynamic and many societies can today be described as dynamic. They have grown from a period of male domination to a period of almost equal treatment of men and women (Philips, 2005). The measurement of social gender roles entails the evaluation of the varying needs of women and men and how such need scan better be fulfilled.

2.2.5 The Empirical Study on Social Gender Role

Every society is biased in some way. Theorists agree that the society is not only biased along biological differences but also along social lines (see for example Appelbaum et al, 2002; OECD, 2004; Vogel, 2003). These studies can be divided into three main groups: components of social gender roles, their impacts in the society and how they can be reduced or even exploited for the betterment of the society.

Social gender role is primarily a form of gender stereo-typing. This stereo-typing is based on the notion that women behave in a different way compared to men. Such behaviour profiling is advised by the social role theory which posits that not only are women biologically different from men but they are socially different (Vogel, 2003). This theory is based on early studies on gender differences which held that women and men are different in terms of the roles they play in the society (Appelbaum et al, 2002). To some extent these studies were correct – they were done at a time when majority of the women population performed nurturing tasks such as baby sitting while men played heaving tasks such as plumbing and masonry (Vogel, 2003).

The contemporary social gender roles are disproportionate. Men and women grow up understanding that socially gendered roles are acceptable and the resulting gender norms of masculinity and femininity are true (OECD, 2004). Those who follow this arrangement are rewarded. Men are rewarded by the male social role while women are rewarded by the female social role – only those men who are capable of making their masculine presence felt will occupy positions of power such as owning lucrative businesses or even occupying top government positions (Appelbaum et al, 2002; Deutsch, 2007). On the other hand, it is generally assumed that only those women who are feminine enough will marry the richest man (Vogel, 2003).

Social gender roles are a form of discrimination. According to Deutsch (2007), the masculinity and femininity complexes were part of a wider scheme by the society to uphold the notion that all people cannot be equal and that some people must indirectly agree to be oppressed by others for the sake of societal progression. This happens at the backdrop of numerous efforts including numerous conferences held to sensitise people on the importance of gender equality and numerous laws enacted to guard against the discrimination of women in the society (Vogel, 2003). The United Nations Fourth World Conference held in Beijing in 1995 (OECD, 2004), for example, drummed support for gender equality but did not succeed in creating more opportunities for women.

The old version of the social role theory however does not apply to contemporary societies. Specifically, the old version of social role theory posits that due to the roles they play in the society, women tend to exhibit different behaviours from men (Vogel, 2003). This may be true in the traditional societies but not in the contemporary ones where women are slowly taking jobs that were traditionally the preserve of men (Deutsch, 2007). The old social role theory portrayed women as better when performing largely feminine tasks such as decoding and encoding non-verbal cues, express their emotions more clearly than men, and can hold on to intimate relationships. On the other hand, men are believed to be more non-verbal, more controlling, and more instrumental than women (OECD, 2004). These differences are fuelled by both biological and social profiling, for example, people perceive women as more eloquent and emotional while men are perceived to be more aggressive and powerful (Deutsch, 2007).

However, social role theory may not be entirely true in all instances. Evidence shows that women may not be feminine because they are weak but because majority of the roles they play demands that they portray more gentle traits (Appelbaum et al, 2002; Blessings, 2010; Vogel, 2003). For example, tasks such as nurturing a sick person of even taking care of a young child require one to exhibit empathy. It is arguable that men who take tasks that are associated with women such as maternal care or even clinical care will exhibit empathetic traits. Similarly, women will exhibit masculine traits when performing tasks associated with men such as taking an active part at the battle front or even driving heavy trucks (Vogel, 2003). Analytically, social gender role differences emerge simply because women are more likely to partake of tasks that have been traditionally associated with women and not because they are weak or they are incapable.

2.3 Leadership Effectiveness

2.3.1 The Definition of Leadership

The study of leadership has gone through many phases. While much of the recent literature concerning effective leadership style still emphasise the role of management skills, findings from contemporary research have elaborated the efficacy of various philosophies when actually practiced in workplace settings or simulated situations (Laguerre, 2010). Contemporary leadership theories tend to combine historical, biographical and behavioural data with a humanistic approach that emphasises the moral and ethical qualities of leadership. There is however a lack of consensus as to the best definition for leadership. However, for purposes of this study, the much accepted definition of a leader from General Electric will be used. This definition contends that “leader is someone who has a vision and ability to articulate that vision to the team so vividly and powerfully that it becomes their vision” (cited in Slater, 1999, p.297).

Effective leadership entails multiple skills. Theorists have divergent views on leadership but still agree that effective leadership aims at maximising organisational returns and it is based on some traits (Yukl, 2006). It is therefore arguable that effective leadership should achieve the following milestones: Anchor on worthwhile (contingency, traits, and behaviours) practices, maximise organisational returns, nurture and retain talent, espouse ethical and legal frameworks.

2.3.2 Theories about Effective Leadership Trait Theory

The trait theory of leadership is based on three assumptions. These assumptions are based on the premise that leadership is acquired through inheritance (Zaccaro, Kemp, Bader, 2004). Specifically, the theory holds that people inherit some traits from their parents when they are born, that some of these traits are useful in leadership, and that good leaders have the most appropriate combination of traits (Zaccaro, 2007). This theory seems to suggest that leadership cannot be learned, it can only be inherited from parents.

Trait theory of leadership is relatively an early approach. It was advanced at a time when the focus of most psychological studies was that behaviour was a function of inheritance and not social learning (Zaccaro, 2001). Psychologists spent the bulk of their time identifying these traits and piecing them together to come up with the best combination that described worthwhile leadership. Identified leadership traits were grouped into categories such as cognitive abilities, motives and values, personality, social appraisal skills, problem solving skills, tacit knowledge as shown in Figure 1 below (Zaccaro et al, 2004). Any person with such capabilities could be leaders in their own right.

Figure 1: Trait Theory of Leadership Model

    Source: Zaccaro et al (2004)

The above leadership traits model is based on the premise that leadership is a function of multiple traits. According to Zaccaro (2004; 2007), leadership cannot be analysed a long a single behaviour trait, it is multidimensional and involving. On the other hand, the second premise holds that various traits influence leadership differently – some traits such as cognitive abilities have a stronger proximal influence than say, tacit knowledge. However, this theory has a shortcoming in that the evaluation of leadership traits as well as their respective impacts to leadership can never be exhaustive as different leadership roles require different leadership traits. Behaviour Theory

Behaviour theory posits that leadership can be learned and that successful leadership is a function of worthwhile behaviour traits that can be learned. The mainstay of behaviour theory of leadership is that leaders are assessed on what they can do rather than what they are (Bolden et al, 2003). The rationale behind this assertion is that if leadership can be assessed according to observable actions such as the number of converts in a church in a given timeframe then leadership traits can be learned and can be taught in schools (Wyrwicka, 1984).

Behaviour theory is a completed contrast of trait theory. While trait theory argues that leadership is an inborn function behaviour theory posits that leadership can be learned and perfected through regular practice (Mischel, 1993). Behaviour theory has opened opportunities for leadership to be taught in schools as an academic discipline. Arguably, this theory is by far the most appropriate among women who for many years they have been described as less incompetent for top leadership positions.

Again, behavioural theory of leadership is the easiest to implement among marginalised population like women. Putting behavioural theory into practice only requires an analysis of successful incidences of leadership and then correlating any statistically significant findings to specific leadership behaviours which then are taught in schools (Wyrwicka, 1984). Such correlation analysis can also be employed to identify behaviours associated with leadership failures and therefore enhance a deeper understanding of leadership (Mischel, 1993). Contingency Theory

Contingency theory is a situational theory of leadership. The theory posits that there can never be a best way to structure organisational leadership since organisations experience different situations at different times (Lutans, 2011). Developed in 1958 by Joan Woodward, this theory encourages leaders to act in a contingent manner as determined by the internally or externally imposed environments (Morgan, 2007). Analytically, the contingent theory opposes the bureaucratic and scientific management theories advanced by Weber and Taylor respectively, by positing that contingency factors have a great impact on the leadership style.

Other facets of contingency theory can be picked from Gareth Morgan who believed that organisations are open systems and therefore require responsive leadership that is not tied to specific styles. Morgan believed that leadership should be designed as the situation demands and that organisations should aim at maximising returns (Morgan, 2007). On the other hand, Fred Fiedler argued that contingency theory of leadership should be based on prevailing leader-follower rapport, the nature of the leadership task at hand, and the position of power occupied by the leader (Lutans, 2011). In a nutshell, Fiedler suggested that a leader can only succeed if they are accepted by their followers, if the leadership task is clearly defined, and if they occupy positions of power.

Contingency theory is less bureaucratic and therefore favours women. This theory does no attach much emphasis on a leaders past experiences but is purely based on the ability to react to a given situation effectively (Lutans, 2011). As such, women may be given positions of power and given the necessary resources to learn the organisation and still perform well when called upon to do so. Nevertheless, this theory may undermine the effectiveness of women leaders especially when there is no situational favourableness as per Fiedler’s three dimensions. A woman leader may fail to make an impact especially in male dominated less structured and flattened organisations.


2.4 Women Entrepreneurship, Social Gender Role and Leadership Effectiveness

The interrelationship between women entrepreneurship, social gender roles, and leadership effectiveness is complex. On the one hand, women entrepreneurs are expected to venture into feminine sectors such as education, catering, and nursing because they are thought to be incompetent when handling leadership tasks in more masculine enterprises such as engineering and construction (Appelbaum et al, 2002). On the other hand, women suffer from social discrimination especially when securing financial and moral support to venture into entrepreneurship. This is because they are considered non-starters who should only take lesser demanding organisational tasks (Kent et al, 2010). Within the backdrop of this social stigma, women are expected to be effective when given positions of leadership – they are expected to maximise organisational returns, nurture and retain talent, and abide the set legal and ethical frameworks (Zhe, 2007).


Women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness are two milestones whose achievability is surrounded by mysteries in many jurisdictions. Vogel (2003) as well as Zhe (2007) posit that achieving optimal leadership effectiveness or even ascending to lucrative entrepreneurship opportunities are almost impossible milestones for women in most economies. Even those who achieve these milestones can be described as very resilient and intelligent – they defy all odds to build large empires. This is partly because women are overburdened with family chores and balancing family and work chores is a challenge (Zhe, 2007), and chiefly because the society does not distribute entrepreneurship and leadership opportunities equally men and women (Vogel, 2003). To this effect, Martin and Ribeiro (2012) argue that unless there is a societal radicalisation, there can never be equality between men and women entrepreneurship.

However, this should not be taken to indicate that women entrepreneurs are less capable of effectively creating and leading enterprises. Theorists argue that women entrepreneurs are crucial to the growth of the economy as does their men counterparts (see for example Blessings, 2010; OECD, 2004). When given space to cut out a niche for themselves, women can equally sight new entrepreneurship ideas, nurture those ideas into lucrative ventures. After all, entrepreneurship is a function of experience, relations, position of power, as well as the ability to access financial and moral support. These are all facets that women can score well against their men counterparts.

2.5 Conclusion

This chapter has addressed four core areas. Firstly, it has reviewed literature on women entrepreneurs in China. Here, it has provided the operational definition of entrepreneurship, the state of entrepreneurship in China, and development of entrepreneurship in China. Specifically, the chapter has shown that China is currently a leading economy courtesy of the entrepreneurship-friendly laws it implemented in 1987. Overall, it has been argued that though the development of women entrepreneurs in China is still low, the country has one of highest levels of women entrepreneurs – at 37 percent compared to the global average rate of 20 percent.

The second part of the chapter has addressed social gender role. Here, three major theories underpinning social gender roles have been reviewed. These theories are theory of mind, social learning theory, and cognitive developmental theory. In addition, this section addressed how social gender roles are develops – it begins at conception and continues throughout an individual’s life span. The section has also addressed how social gender roles can be measured. The reviewed literature in this subsection shows that social gender roles cannot be quantified but can be comparatively measured in terms of the relative access to opportunities between men and women. Lastly, the section has covered existing empirical studies addressing social gender roles.

The third section has reviewed literature on leadership effectiveness. This section has shown that effective leadership is multiple dimensional – it requires multiple skills such as tacit knowledge, listening skills, and cognitive skills. From a trait theory point of view, the section shows that leadership is inborn, while from a behavioural theory standpoint, leadership is learned. Lastly, the contingency theory holds that leadership is situational and that there no best practices of leadership.

The last section of the chapter has covered the relationship between women entrepreneurship, social gender roles, and leadership effectiveness. Overall, this section has shown that women entrepreneurship suffers the blow of social gender roles that limits women activities. Moreover, women entrepreneurs are at a disadvantage especially when balancing family and work related chores. However, the section shows that when given opportunities and resources to flex their leadership skills, women can as well succeed in entrepreneurship and leadership realms.


Research Philosophy

A study to investigate the relationship between social variables such as the impact of social gender roles on women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness falls within the casual research paradigm. According to Saunders et al (2009), casual research paradigm comprise of studies that seek to investigate the effects of a single social variable on two or more social variables. Casual research help to assess and to report the effect of one major factor which is usually the independent variable on other factor(s) which are usually the dependent variables (Schunk, 2008). The identified impacts are then used to test predetermined hypothetical scenarios related to the study topic. For example, this research determines how social gender role profiling impacts the entrepreneurship opportunities and leadership effectiveness among women in Beijing.

This study employs a positivist research philosophy. A positivist research philosophy is one of mostly used approaches in casual research paradigm. This philosophy helps researchers and their audience to understand the world in a better way – it allows for the direct observation of phenomena and making of inferences based on the understanding of the phenomena (Schunk, 2008). According to Saunders et al (2009), a positivist approach allows a researcher to test the positive and negative factors that influences a phenomena, why people behave the way they behave towards a particularly phenomena and the impacts of such behaviour to the mainstream population.

A positivist approach is highly recommended for topics falling within the social sciences domain. Examining the relationship between women entrepreneurship, social gender role and leadership effectiveness is a topic that falls within the social science domain – it investigates a social issue with a large impact on the lives of a socially marginalised gender (Saunders et al, 2009). Overall, this philosophical approach was selected because it allows a researcher and the audience to look at the world in a more critical way and therefore understand how social gender roles influence women entrepreneurship as well as their ability leadership effectiveness (Schunk, 2008). Specifically, the approach gave made the researcher to clearly understand why the Chinese society practice social gender role profiling and how this vice can be reduced so as to enhance gender equality in entrepreneurship and leadership matters.

3.2 Research Approach

The reason why a deductive research approach was selected is because it allows the testing of existing theories using the collected primary data (Creswell, 2009). In this study, the researcher tested the suitability of the theory of mind, social learning theory, and cognitive developmental theory to check the extent that they support social gender roles and how such support influences women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness. Moreover, a deductive approach gave the researcher the opportunity to test the suitability of the reviewed leadership theories (trait theory, behaviour theory, and contingency theory) to the case of women in Beijing. Overall, a deductive research approach allowed for the objective collection, analysis and interpretation of data as per the study objectives and hypotheses.

The main reasons why this research approach was chosen is because it is a good forecasting and measurement tool for evaluating social issues falling within the casual research paradigm. Specifically, a deductive approach allows casual researchers to gather enough information and to accurately estimate the impact of a social phenomenon on an issue of interest (Saunders et al, 2009). Overall, this approach gives the researcher the opportunity to interpret and make objective inferences from the study findings.

Nevertheless, this approach has limitations. It is only applicable to situations when the reviewed theories are relevant to the study objectives and to collected data. Moreover, it cannot be applied in a situation where there are few theories to be tested against a backdrop of huge chunks of evidence (Saunders et al, 2009). However, this was not a major limitation for this study since the questionnaires were modelled to the results of a pilot study carried out before the actual data collection process.

3.3 Research Strategy

Studies falling within casual research paradigm can employ a number of research strategies. Some of the possible strategies include surveys, observation, case studies, and even ethnographic strategies (Saunders et al, 2009). However, this study will utilise a survey strategy. A survey research strategy involves examining new ideas based on existing knowledge through interacting with a group of subjects so as to learn their experiences (Creswell, 2009). This normally takes place through asking questions related to specific study variables through questionnaires which may be delivered in person or through the post office mail service (Schunk, 2008).

The reason why this research strategy was selected is because is easy to implement especially when there is a limitation of resources. A survey method is indeed a simple scientific method of creating knowledge (Creswell, 2003). Moreover, the modern survey method can incorporate a range of robust data collection and analysis tools such as automatic telephone dialling and computer monitored response collection and the use of computer aided data analysis programmes such as SPSS (Schunk, 2008).

3.4 Data Collection

This study utilised questionnaires as its sole primary data collection tool. Since a survey approach will be used, the researcher utilises the mail delivery system – the subjects were contacted by way of the postal service through their respective postal addresses. They were sent a postage paid letter that contained the questionnaire and were given a period of one week to fell the questionnaire and post it to the researcher. To enhance response rate, the questionnaires comprised of closed questions. The reason why closed question questionnaires were chosen instead of interviews was because questionnaires are easy to fill for subjects with busy daily schedules and they are less costly to administer and analyse (Bryman and Bell, 2007).

To enhance the collection of rich data capable of testing the study hypotheses and objectives, the researcher performed a pilot study first. This involved sending mock questionnaires to 20 subjects as part of a pilot study whose response rate was 63 percent. This helped to establish the achievability of ten study objectives, to test the study hypotheses, and to determine the expected response rate. The results of the pilot study were used to review the questionnaires in view of incorporating more details to enhance the collection of rich and accurate set of raw data.

The researcher relied on the subjects’ goodwill to complete the questionnaires in an accurate and timely manner. Subjects who did not return their questionnaires within the one week time frame were called through their mobile phone numbers and given another one week to submit the completed questionnaires. In total, about 60 percent of the dispatched questionnaires were returned. Out of the returned questionnaires, 95 percent were fully completed while the remaining 5 percent were not filled at all. This marked a response rate of 55 percent, a fair level of response given the potential limitations associated with uncompleted or unreturned questionnaires.

3.4.1 Questionnaire Design

***** This section was intentionally left blank *****

3.5 Data Analysis Methods

This study employed a descriptive data analysis method to. This method involves the calculation of statistical values such as means, standard deviations, and the skewness of data. In addition, the correlation between the variables, that is, independent variables (social gender roles) and dependent variables (women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness) will be calculated (Bryman and Bell, 2007). Lastly, the analysed data was entered into frequency distribution tables and statistical graphs and charts as shown in the following chapter. The final analysis and discussion of the data was based on these tables, graphs, and charts.

However, the data analysis process was limited to the “descriptive” nature of the descriptive data analysis method. The statistical tools were only used to describe the obvious attributes that could be gleaned from the data in respect to the study objectives and hypotheses.  The reason why this data analysis method was selected is because it is easy to use especially when few variables are at play and most importantly, it enables the researcher and the audience to easily identify the cause effect relationship between the study variables since the analysed data is presented in simple frequency distribution tables and graphs (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005).

The use of a descriptive data analysis method was made easy by a simple data analysis plan which was prepared before the actual data collection was done. This data analysis plan was arranged according to the four objectives outlined in chapter one – the plan comprised of four core sections, each section addressed a single objective (Creswell, 2009). The plan made it easy for the researcher to sort out the responses, check their accuracy and drop wrongly completed questionnaires. It allowed the researcher to establish the “what is” of the study topic – what is the relationship between social gender roles, women entrepreneurship, and leadership effectiveness, “why use it” – why is this relationship important, and “how it is related to the objectives” – does the relationship or lack of it make sense to the study objectives and does it confirm the hypotheses?

3.6 Sample and Sampling Method

Investigating the impact of social gender role on women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness requires one to gather rich and accurate data that can help in testing hypotheses. Moreover, this study requires the researcher to utilise a diverse sample comprising of people with immense experience knowledge on social gender role, women entrepreneurship, and leadership effectiveness. According to Saunders et al (2009) this is a basic requirement with causal research that investigates the cause and effect of a phenomenon. On the other hand, Creswell (2003) advises that so as to capture rich and accurate data, study samples should be made up of persons with immense knowledge on the particular field of study.

To this effect, the researcher utilised senior officials at the ministry of trade and commerce with at least five years working in the ministry, Beijing chapter. The rationale behind this decision was based on the fact that all entrepreneurs in China are required to register their businesses with the local offices of the ministry of trade and commerce stating the nature of businesses they want to run, where they want to locate it, the expected number of employees to contract, as well as the minimum capital they intend to invest. It was reasoned that officials with at least five years working in senior positions in the ministry of trade and commerce, Beijing chapter would be able to accurately answer questions regarding women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness in Beijing, China.

To narrow down on the potential study subjects, the researcher utilised the employee inventory at the local offices of the ministry of trade and commerce in Beijing. Here, all the potential subjects – all senior officials with at least 5 years working for the ministry were listed down. A total of 50 potential subjects were identified during this preliminary sampling procedure. The researcher then prepared 50 postage paid consent letters and dispatched them to the potential subjects. The potential subjects were given a one week period time frame to return the completed consent letters indicating their willingness to participate in the study or otherwise. A total of 47 potential subjects returned their consent letters – 43 of these indicated willingness to take part in the study while the remaining declined to be incorporated in the study citing various personal and work related reasons.

Those who did not want to take part in the study were ignored. On the other hand, those potential subjects willing to be involved in the study were subjected to the random sampling procedure. The rationale behind the choice of a random sampling method was to give every willing potential subject an opportunity to be selected – Creswell (2009) argues that a random sampling method gives every potential subject a chance to be selected. To facilitate the random sampling method, the researcher listed the names of all the 43 potential subjects in an alphabetical order and assigned each name a number, from 1 to 43. Using a random number generator, the researcher selected the first 30 numbers. Potential subjects with the corresponding numbers were then selected to take part in the study. As Saunders at al. (2009) advices, the other potential participants were dropped.

A 30-subjects sample size was ideal for the study. Since the pilot study response was 63 percent for a sample of 20 subjects, it was reasoned that a sample size slightly bigger and close to that of the pilot study would be ideal. Moreover, and as Bryman and Bell (2007) postulate, studies that have time and monetary limitations should not involve large study samples – they should incorporate samples that are easy to manage. A 30-subjects sample size was easy to manage for this study as it was performed under time and monetary constraints.

Research Ethics

This study observed all the major ethical requirements for casual research. This included seeking prior permission to the case study organisation and the potential study subjects. Specifically, the researcher sought prior permission from the ministry of trade and commerce as well as the potential study subjects before embarking on the sampling and data collection processes. This also involved briefing on the nature of the study, the nature of information to be collected and why it was necessary for the ministry through its senior officials to provide first-hand information regarding the study topic. During the course of the study, subjects were briefed on their rights – the right to non-disclosure of personal information, right to withdraw from the study and the right to skip some questionnaire questions. Overall and as Creswell (2009) advices, the subjects were made aware that their participation in the study was voluntary and mutual.

3.8 Conclusion

This chapter has presented pertinent information regarding the major study processes of sampling, data collection and data analysis. In addition, the chapter has presented comprehensive information on the research philosophy, approach, and strategy that guided the review of existing literature, sampling of study subjects as well as the data collection and analysis processes. Specifically, the chapter presents information describing these core processes, the rationale behind their selection, their strengths and their respective limitations. Overall, the chapter gives the audience a clear picture of what to expect as part of the study findings and how to utilise such findings in understanding the world of women entrepreneurship and leadership effectiveness as it is affected by social gender role profiling in major urban centres such as Beijing.



















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Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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